Theory of Computing
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Title : Monotone Projection Lower Bounds from Extended Formulation Lower Bounds
Authors : Joshua A. Grochow
Volume : 13
Number : 18
Pages : 1-15
URL : http://www.theoryofcomputing.org/articles/v013a018
Abstract
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In this short note, we reduce lower bounds on monotone projections of
polynomials to lower bounds on extended formulations of polytopes.
Applying our reduction to the seminal extended formulation lower bounds
of Fiorini, Massar, Pokutta, Tiwari, & de Wolf (STOC 2012; J. ACM, 2015)
and Rothvoss (STOC 2014; J. ACM, 2017), we obtain the following
interesting consequences.
1. The Hamiltonian Cycle polynomial is not a monotone subexponential-size
projection of the permanent; this both rules out a natural attempt at a
monotone lower bound on the Boolean permanent, and shows that the permanent
is _not_ complete for non-negative polynomials in $VNP_{\R}$ under
monotone p-projections.
2. The cut polynomials and the perfect matching polynomial (or
"unsigned Pfaffian") are not monotone p-projections of the permanent.
The latter, over the Boolean and-or semi-ring, rules out monotone
reductions in one of the natural approaches to reducing perfect matchings
in general graphs to perfect matchings in bipartite graphs.
As the permanent is universal for monotone formulas, these results also
imply exponential lower bounds on the monotone formula size and monotone
circuit size of these polynomials.